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發報時間: 2011-06-16 05:00:00 / 報主:立報—教育專題深入報導
[公益聯播]【招募課輔天使】長期招募平日、寒暑假貓頭鷹課輔志工
台 灣 立 報 《 教 育 專 題 深 入 報 導 》 2011-06-16
────────全 國 唯 一 教 育 專 業 報───────
台 灣 立 報 《 教 育 專 題 深 入 報 導》 2011-06-16
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★ ★ 本期目錄 ★ ★


秘魯闢新路:拒絕模仿查維斯 烏馬拉擔保經濟發展本報訊

策劃、編譯■李威撰、謝雯伃

在5日的第二輪總統決選中,烏馬拉獲得51.5%的選票,成為秘魯第94任總統。

烏馬拉聲稱要將財富分配給窮人,但同時又與查維斯保持一定距離;

選後拜會由激進轉趨溫和的巴西總統羅賽芙,

似乎也說明他與早期立場分道揚鑣。

這一看似個人的立場轉變,實則已說明了秘魯的內部緊張關係及國際處境。

■烏馬拉於5日在利馬市的一處廣場上向支持者打招呼。(圖文/路透)

秘魯左翼總統當選人烏馬拉,7日向投資者再次保證他會保護秘魯長期經濟發展,誓言不會模仿委內瑞拉具爭議性的領導人查維斯;烏馬拉一度視其為政壇導師。

Peru's leftist President-elect Ollanta Humala vowed on Tuesday he is no copy of his one-time mentor (1), Venezuela's firebrand leader Hugo Chavez, as he tried to reassure investors he will protect a long economic boom.

烏馬拉在5日大選中打敗右派議員藤森慶子,在接受《路透》訪問當日仍有倦容。他在訪問中表示,絕不會引進任何外國的經濟模式。「我們認為最適合秘魯的道路就是自己的道路,而不是模仿其他國家。這需要非常明確的認知。」他以此回應評論家指出他會是另一個查維斯的說法。

Visibly weary following Sunday's election victory over right-wing lawmaker Keiko Fujimori, Humala told Reuters he would not be importing any economic model from abroad. "We think the path for Peru is its own road, without copying other countries. That needs to be very clear," he said when asked to respond to critics who say he will be another Chavez.

烏馬拉的競選政見之一,就是要讓數百萬名貧困秘魯人民分享過去10年經濟發展的成果。秘魯的經濟發展的一大原因,在於國內礦業得利於礦產國際價格高漲。

Humala campaigned on a promise to ensure that millions of poor Peruvians will share the windfall from a decade-long boom, fueled largely by high global prices for its mining (2)industry.

雖然說烏馬拉已放棄過去所堅持的激進政策,並嘗試加入諸如巴西前總統魯拉等較為溫和的左派領袖行列,然商界領袖和投資人還是對其當選感到擔心。

He worries business leaders and investors, although he has dropped some of the radical policies of his past and has tried to cast himself in the vein of more moderate leftist leaders like Brazil's former President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva.

烏馬拉曾任陸軍反游擊指揮官,1990年代領軍於叢林中對抗毛派的光明之路游擊隊。他自稱是一名民族主義者,2000年初次登上政治舞台。當時他領導了一場短暫的不流血革命,要求總統藤森謙也下台。

The former army commander, who fought Maoist Shining Path guerrillas in the jungle in the 1990s, describes himself as a nationalist and burst onto the political scene in 2000 when he led a short-lived bloodless revolt to demand former President Alberto Fujimori resign.

烏馬拉想要強化秘魯與其他南美鄰居的關係,特別是近來崛起為地區強權和政治要角的巴西。不過他在7日也提到,美國是秘魯的「策略性夥伴」,他將會與華府密切合作,打擊毒品走私集團。秘魯是全球最大的古柯葉種植國,古柯葉是古柯鹼的原料。

He wants to strengthen relations with Peru's South American neighbors, especially Brazil, which has emerged as the region's economic powerhouse and political heavyweight. But he also said on Tuesday that the United States is "a strategic partner" and that he would work closely with Washington to fight drug traffickers in the world's top grower of coca, which is used to make cocaine.

自從2006年總統選舉失利後,烏馬拉大幅緩和他的左派政策。勝選後,秘魯金融市場的股匯市於6日狂跌,而烏馬拉出面緩頰,指出7日股市的部分回升,表示著暴跌只是短期的波動。

Humala has heavily moderated his policies since losing the 2006 presidential election, and he played down a plunge (3)in Peru's financial markets on Monday that followed his triumph, saying a partial recovery on Tuesday showed it was a blip.

目前秘魯投資人緊張不安地觀望烏馬拉指派何人擔任財政部長和央行總裁,經營這個全球發展最快的經濟體。他所指派的財政相關和其他重要職位,將會展現他真正的政策路線溫和到何種程度。

Investors are on edge waiting to see who Humala will appoint as finance minister and central bank chief to run one of the world's fastest-growing economies. His appointments to those and other key posts will demonstrate how much he has really moderated his policies.

48歲的烏馬拉有3名子女,是遵照軍隊鍛鍊模式生活的跑步健將;他表示他的政府將會對財政政策謹慎以對,並且不會販售主權債券以資助其反貧窮計畫。「我們將透過形成公、私部門合作關係,發展基礎建設。」他說。

The 48-year-old father of three, an avid runner still marked by military routine, said his government would be fiscally prudent and would not sell sovereign bonds to finance his anti-poverty programs. "We are going to develop infrastructure (4)by forming public-private partnerships," he said.

烏馬拉試著用較和緩的語調談及計畫對秘魯龐大的礦業所開徵的暴利稅,預計要使用這筆商品稅收來資助幫助1/3秘魯貧窮人民的計畫。「原則上,在選戰期間,各候選人達成政治共識,認為應對礦業主課徵暴利稅。」他說。「我們需要與礦業公司討論稅率的訂定問題,把他們的利潤也考慮進去。」

He sought to strike a conciliatory tone about his proposal to introduce a windfall profits tax (5)on companies in Peru's vast mining sector -- commodity revenues he plans to use to fund programs to help the third of Peruvians who live in poverty. "In principle there was a political consensus during the campaign to charge a windfall profits tax on miners," he said. "We need to talk with companies about the tax rate, taking into account their margins."

投資人擔心,烏馬拉的社會福利支出,以及預定要強化政府對秘魯自然資源控制的計畫,將會對秘魯的經濟成長率造成風險。不過,他的經濟顧問們堅稱,烏馬拉將會平衡預算,保持低通膨率,尊重秘魯先前所簽訂的許多自由貿易協定,並獎勵私人投資。

Investors worry Humala's social spending and plans to tighten the state's grip over Peru's natural resources could put economic growth at risk. But his top economic advisers insist he will run a balanced budget, keep inflation low, respect Peru's many free-trade pacts and honor private investment.

(路透Reuters)


關鍵字詞
Key Words

1. mentor

(n.) 導師

2. mining

(n.) 採礦(業)

3. plunge

(n. v.) 下跌

4. infrastructure

(n.) 基礎建設

5. windfall profits tax

(n.) 暴利稅

(回目錄)



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