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發報時間: 2011-10-13 05:00:00 / 報主:立報—教育專題深入報導
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台 灣 立 報 《 教 育 專 題 深 入 報 導 》 2011-10-13
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台 灣 立 報 《 教 育 專 題 深 入 報 導》 2011-10-13
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巾幗飛揚:貢獻受矚目 三女傑獲諾貝爾和平獎李威撰

策劃、編譯■李威撰

挪威諾貝爾委員會7日揭曉和平獎得主,由3名來自非洲及阿拉伯的女性獲獎,

儘管結果公布後引發些許爭議,但外界普遍仍持正面評價,

認為這次諾貝爾獎強調了女性政治參與的重要性,以及肯定女性對和平的貢獻。


諾貝爾委員會頒發和平獎給3名反戰及反壓迫的堅強女性運動者,宣告女性權利對世界和平的重要性。受獎者有1名葉門人與2名賴比瑞亞人,賴比瑞亞總統也是得獎者之一。

Declaring women's rights vital for world peace, the Nobel Committee awarded its annual Peace Prize on Friday to three indomitable female campaigners against war and oppression -- a Yemeni and two Liberians, including that country's president.

瑟利夫是非洲國家舉行自由選舉中,首位當選國家元首的女性;與瑟利夫同國籍的葛波薇則提倡「性罷工」,為終結賴比瑞亞內戰盡一份努力;葉門的卡曼則將自己獲得的這份榮耀,稱之為「阿拉伯之春的勝利」。3人一同平分150萬美元獎金。

Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, the first woman freely elected as a head of state in Africa, shared the award worth $1.5 million with compatriot Leymah Gbowee, who promoted a "sex strike" among efforts to end Liberia's civil war, and Yemen's Tawakul Karman, who called her honour "a victory for the Arab Spring."

挪威諾貝爾委員會主席賈格蘭德向記者表示:「除非女性獲得與男性相同機會來影響社會各層面的發展,否則我們就無法實現民主與維繫和平。」「這強調全世界一項極其重要的課題,尤其是在非洲跟阿拉伯世界。」

"We cannot achieve democracy and lasting peace in the world unless women obtain the same opportunities as men to influence developments at all levels of society," Norwegian Nobel Committee chairman Thorbjoern Jagland told reporters. "This is to highlight an incredibly important issue all over the world but especially in Africa and in the Arab world."

32歲的卡曼被稱作「革命之母」,她是一名信仰伊斯蘭教的記者,在今年首都沙那的抗議中扮演重要角色。卡曼是3名孩子的母親,她在看到新聞後就決定走出家門,加入沙那中央廣場上的抗議,要求總統沙雷下台。

Karman, 32, an Islamist journalist dubbed the "Mother of the Revolution," has been a key figure in protests in the capital Sanaa this year. The mother-of-three was out demonstrating in a central square in Sanaa for the departure of veteran Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh when she heard the news.

72歲的瑟利夫曾在世界銀行擔任經濟學者,反對派稱她為「鐵娘子」。她表示,她的國家賴比瑞亞經歷10年血腥內戰,這個獎項是對「多年來爭取正義、和平及提倡發展」的肯定。瑟利夫在首都蒙羅維亞聽到奧斯陸傳來的消息後,說:「賴比瑞亞人民也分享這份榮譽。」

Johnson-Sirleaf, 72, a former World Bank economist known as the "Iron Lady" by opponents, called the prize a recognition of her nation's "many years of struggle for justice, peace, and promotion of development" since a brutal decade of civil war. "The credit goes to the Liberian people," she said in the capital Monrovia after hearing the announcement from Oslo.

39歲的葛波薇由於搭機前往紐約推銷新書,直到班機降落打開手機才接獲得獎消息。她說:「迴盪在我腦海的只有讚美上帝的頌歌。我的工作是替自己跟其她女性爭取生存……無論有無獲得諾貝爾獎,我都會繼續努力,因為在這塊大陸上,我是我們社群的希望,這裡是希望渺茫之地。」她的「女性爭取和平」運動被認為有助於瑞比瑞亞在2003年結束內戰。

Gbowee, 39, received the news belatedly when she switched on her mobile phone after landing in New York on a book tour. "All I keep hearing in my head is the song of praise to God," she said. "My work is for survival for myself and for other women ... With or without a Nobel I will still do what I do because I am a symbol of hope in my community on the continent, in a place where there is little to be hopeful for." Her Women For Peace movement is credited with helping end Liberia's war in 2003.

■由左至右分別是卡曼、瑟利夫及葛波薇。(圖/路透)

獲獎者遭批

賴比瑞亞反對黨領袖杜伯曼與韋亞表示,瑟利夫不配獲得諾貝爾獎,賴國正值總統大選,頒獎給她是對賴比瑞亞政治一種「挑釁的介入」。杜伯曼表示:「她不配這個獎,她是戰爭販子,她將戰爭帶進我們國家,並把國家給搞砸。」有意見認為,委員會頒獎給瑟利夫會影響11日的選情,對她爭取第2任總統有加分的作用,但賈格蘭德反對這項說法。

Liberian opposition leaders Winston Tubman and George Weah said Johnson-Sirleaf did not deserve the Nobel Prize and that awarding it to her was a "provocative 1 intervention" in Liberian politics in the midst of a tight presidential election race. "She does not deserve it. She is a warmonger. She brought war on our country and spoiled the country," Tubman told Reuters. Jagland rejected suggestions that the panel's decision might skew the election on Tuesday by giving Johnson-Sirleaf a boost in her bid for a second term.

至於頒獎給卡曼,賈格蘭德則指出,這是在傳遞一項訊息,即阿拉伯的獨裁者該是時候下台了,同時也是在提醒新領袖(包括伊斯蘭教在內)要捍衛女性權利。

But he called the award to Karman a signal to Arab autocrats that it was time to go, as well as a warning to new leaders, including Islamists, to protect women's rights.

賈格蘭德告訴《路透》:「若你注意阿拉伯之春,這是一項重要議題。除非他們將女性一同納入發展,否則他們會失敗……我對這些國家當前的態勢感到憂心。」「因此對那些試圖建立民主的人來說,這是一項清楚的訊息,就是你必須讓女人加入。」

"If you look at the Arab Spring, this is a crucial issue," Jagland told Reuters. "Unless they include the women in the development there, then they will fail ... I am worried about what is going on in several of these countries. "So this is a clear message to those who are trying to build democracy -- that you have to take the women on board."

在全球倡議婦女及孩童權益的馬契爾表示:「這是承認當女人在衝突中付出最多代價時,她們在締造和平跟重建國家的任務上,同樣也扮演領導角色。」馬契爾是前南非總統、諾貝爾和平獎得主曼德拉的妻子。

"(This) is a recognition that while women pay the highest price in conflicts, they are equally leaders in peacemaking and rebuilding their nations," said Graca Machel, a global advocate for women's and children's rights and the wife of former South African president and Nobel peace laureate 2 Nelson Mandela.

卡曼誓言要終結沙雷的統治,沙雷自1978年掌權,略早於卡曼的出生,「我們的和平革命將持續下去,直到沙雷垮台並建立起市民國家為止」。

Karman, vowed to end Saleh's rule, which began in 1978, just before she was born. "Our peaceful revolution will continue until we topple Saleh and establish a civilian state."

參加抗議的民眾普遍歡迎這份和平獎的殊榮,認為這對運動來說是一劑強心針,儘管許多人對於部分人士批評她作風「強硬」開始感到不滿。行動青年瓦濟爾說:「對抗議者來說,她是一名具有爭議性的角色。但不管如何,每個人現在都是開心的。這象徵世界支持我們的和平抗議運動,人們也感覺到世界跟我們站在一起。」

The Peace Prize was widely welcomed as a shot in the arm for their movement by fellow protesters, even though many had begun to tire of what some complained was a "dictatorial 3 " style of her own. "She's a controversial figure for the protesters, but either way everyone is happy today," said youth activist Atiaf al-Wazir. "This is a sign the world supports our peaceful protest movement, people feel the world is standing with us."

頒獎多元化 擴大和平內涵

今年諾貝爾獎頒發給賴比瑞亞及葉門的3位女性,進一步擴張這個知名獎項自1960年代以來的頒獎傳統,這個獎項主要頒發給人權與民主運動者,以及符合傳統標準的和平締造者。

This year's Nobel Peace Prize to three women from Liberia and Yemen extends the illustrious award's tradition since the 1960s of honoring human rights and democracy activists as well as more conventional peacemakers 4.

據諾貝爾委員會表示,頒發獎項給人權及支持民主運動人士,很自然會擴大和平的概念。但批評者認為,這脫離阿弗雷德.諾貝爾在1895年創立獎項時的初衷。

Giving the award for human rights and pro-democracy activism naturally expands the concept of peace, according to the Nobel committee, but critics say it strays from the intention of Alfred Nobel, who created the prize in his 1895 will.

作家赫弗梅爾表示,由5人組成的委員會屢次忽略諾貝爾的心願,今年委員會的決定同樣也無法解釋這符合諾貝爾的意志。

Fredrik Heffermehl, an author who argues that the five-member committee has ignored Nobel's intention time and again, said the committee failed to explain how this year's prizes fulfilled the will.

諾貝爾規定,獎項要頒發給那些「在建立國家間的博愛情誼、廢除或減少常備軍、舉辦或提倡和平會議上,做得最多或最好的人。」

Nobel stipulated that the prize should go to those "who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses."

身兼律師及和平運動者的赫弗梅爾表示:「諾貝爾委員會對此至少已忽視60年,我不是在評價得獎者,而是在評價委員會。」

"The Nobel committee has disrespected this for at least 60 years," Heffermehl, an attorney and peace activist, said. "I am not evaluating the winners, I am evaluating the committee."

但諾貝爾獎的專家表示,如果和平獎跟早期幾十年一樣,主要頒發給和平斡旋者或簽署和平協議的人士,女性將鮮少有機會加入分享桂冠殊榮的行列。

If the peace prize were primarily given to peace mediators or signatories to peace treaties, as in the prize's early decades, women would have little chance of joining the honor roll of laureates, according to Nobel experts.

和平獎由瑞典慈善家諾貝爾所創設,他同時也發明了黃色炸藥。這個獎項在初期數十年間,經常頒發給愛國的政治人物,如1906年頒發給美國總統羅斯福,或是安排和平會議的首位女性桂冠得主蘇特納男爵夫人。

The prize created by Nobel, a Swedish philanthropist and inventor of dynamite, was in its early decades often awarded to patrician statesmen, such as U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906, and arrangers of peace congresses, such as the first woman laureate Bertha von Suttner in 1905.

但自從1960年開始,和平獎頒給南非工會運動者盧圖利,至此受獎範圍從和平締造及解除武裝延伸至爭取人權者。

But with the 1960 award to South African trade unionist Alfred Lutuli, the scope of the prize expanded from its roots in peace-making and disarmament to the battle for human rights.

這等於是替後來許多權利及民主的提倡者鋪路,其中也包括反對獨裁政權的異議人士,如1975年頒給蘇聯的沙卡洛夫、1983年頒給波蘭團結工聯領袖華勒沙、1991年頒給緬甸翁山蘇姬,以及去年的中國人權運動者劉曉波。

That paved the way to prizes to many rights and democracy advocates and dissidents opposing authoritarian regimes, such as Andrei Sakarov in the Soviet Union in 1975, Lech Walesa in Poland in 1983, Aung San Suu Kyi in Myanmar in 1991 and last year's laureate, Chinese human rights activist Liu Xiaobo.

對抗貧窮與飢餓的人士也打進獲獎人選之列,如1970年頒給農學家曼博洛格、1979頒給加爾各答的德蕾莎修女,以及2006年頒給創立鄉村銀行的孟加拉經濟學者尤納斯。

The fight against poverty and hunger was taken on board with prizes to American agronomist Norman Borlaug in 1970, Mother Theresa of Calcutta in 1979 and Bangladeshi economist Mohammad Yunus and his Grameen Bank 5 in 2006.

不僅如此,頒獎對象還包含致力於環境保護及氣候行動的人士,如2004年肯亞的馬泰伊,以及2007年的前美國副總統高爾與聯合國跨政府氣候變遷專家小組(IPCC)。

The scope of the prize was widened further to encompass environmental protection and climate activism with the awards to Kenya's Wangari Maathai in 2004 and former U.S. vice president Al Gore and U.N. climate scientists in 2007.

(路透Reuters)


關鍵字詞
Key Words

1. provocative

(a.) 挑釁的

2. laureate

(n.) 獲獎者

3. dictatorial

(a.) 專橫的、獨裁的

4. peacemaker

(n.) 調停人、和事佬

5. Grameen Bank

(n.) 鄉村銀行

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